Fossils and Strata, A New Silurian (Llandovery, Telychian) Sponge Assemblage from Gotland, Sweden

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The palaeobiogeography of these faunas suggests that lithistidsponges were strongly affected by the end-Ordovician extinctions, but a variety ofLlandoverian taxa recovered to become very widespread and combined with endemicfaunas developing within each region. Non-lithistid taxa, in contrast, appear to haveundergone important evolutionary development during the Late Ordovician EarlySilurian interval, with at least some modern groups possibly originating in relativelyinshore habitats at this time. Freek Rhebergen [freek. Botting [acutipuerilis yahoo. The field being comparatively new and exceed-ingly difficult, we expect our work to prove faultyin some respects; yet, whatever errors we mayhave fallen into, we will find consolation in theconviction that we have done the best we couldunder the circumstances.

Lower Silurian sponges are globally rare, and Silu-rian lithistid-dominated faunas are best known fromArctic Canada. A diverse assemblage of silicifiedsponges, including orchocladines, rhizomorines,stromatoporoids, hexactinellids and non-lithistiddemosponges, has been collected from scree accu-mulations in a restricted area along the western coastof the Island of Gotland, Sweden Fig. The Silurian age Llandoverian, Tely-. The assemblage is important in several respects,especially as Early Silurian sponges are globally rare Muir et al.

This is the firstknown assemblage of Silurian sponges from Balticaand, aside from isolated spicules, includes the firstrhizoclonid sponges recorded from the region. Theassemblage is very distinct from, and far morediverse than, the assemblage of erratic sponges ofOrdovician age that also occurs among the samepebble accumulations on Gotland. These assem-blages are compared in detail in a subsequent chap-ter. Silurian sponge faunas are generally scarce world-wide, being limited both in species and numbersof specimens when compared with Ordovicianassemblages.

Hamilton and Cornwallis Islands, Arctic Canada,gave an overview of Silurian sponges known fromthe literature up to that time, and this is revised andextended by Muir et al. The only European sponges were those dis-cussed by Rauff ; these include two hexactinel-lids from the UK: Oncosella Rauff andAmphispongia Salter , and Ordovician demo-sponges from northern Europe. However, this reflects a wide-spread stratigraphic confusion, because in older mainly German European literature, the Ordovi-cian System was named Lower- Silurian long afterthe Ordovician had been erected Lindstrom a;Rauff , , ; Stolley , As aconsequence, even in recent literature Finks ,Ordovician sponges from Baltica, including Gotland,have erroneously been conceived as of Silurian age.

Palaeozoic sponges from the Swedish mainlandare exceptionally rare.

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Wiman recorded twoerratic specimens, but recent re-investigation in by FR has shown that Wimans identificationof the specimens as sponges is questionable. There are no reports ofsponges from Oland, from either bedrock or erratics Christina Franzen, personal communication The occurrence of thousands of sponge specimenson Gotland is therefore remarkable.

Sponges from Gotland have been poorly recorded,compared with the numerous papers on erraticsponges collected in Germany and the Netherlands. Lindstrom , b listed erratic sponges fromGotland, assigning some of them to his Zone b andZone c, and relating these to the Red Layers.

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Rauff apparently visited the collections of theSwedish Museum of Natural History, as he describedand figured a number of specimens. However, thereis no indication that he considered any of thosesponges to be of Upper Silurian age. Lindstrom probablyintended to describe at least part of the spongeassemblage, because he had drawings made by Lillj-eval, but did not complete the work Rhebergen Schluter reported on a remarkablesponge specimen, Astylospongia gothlandica, whichhas been figured by Rauff as an aberrant formof the Ordovician species Caryspongia diadema.

Ret-rospectively, this specimen appears to have been thefirst specimen of the Silurian assemblage to be fig-ured, and it is now designated as the holotype ofCaryoconus gothlandicus Schluter, Van Kempen described another aberranterratic specimen from Gnisvard Gotland and fol-lowed Rauffs determination. Additional specimensof identical or similar aberrant forms, collected byMrs. Rhebergen also described somesponge taxa from Silurian strata exposed on Got-land, varying in age from the Lower Visby Forma-tion Llandovery to the Eke Formation Ludlow.

Map of Gotland Sweden. The assemblage has been collected from pebble accu-mulations, mainly from a restricted area about 8 kmin length, along the western coast of Gotland,between Gnisvard and Stavsklint. The most produc-tive stretch is near Nyrevsudde and Blahall in theTofta parish Fig. The extensive pebble accumulations in the pro-ductive area are or have been exposed to Baltic Seabreakers.

They are composed of a wide range ofblocks and gravel, including a range of igneous andsedimentary rock types; among them are silicifiedsponges, tabulate corals and stromatoporoids. Mostspecimens have been heavily abraded by continuousrolling Fig. Some tens of specimens were. Four isolated speci-mens are recorded from Vastergarn, Mulde Fiskelageand Kneippbyn respectively, Heilwig Leipnitz, per-sonal communication ; Peter de Vries,personal communication The drivers ' Business Insider '. An download fossils and strata, a new silurian llandovery, telychian sponge assemblage from gotland, in the gain of a care's Day and words.

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Fossils and Strata: Lower Ordovician trilobites of the Kirtonryggen Formation, Spitsbergen

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