The 1970s. Its Time for Change

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The rule is meant to protect workers who lack control over their time and tasks and do not receive high pay. However, this salary threshold has rarely been updated—it has been changed only eight times in 75 years and only once since —nor is it indexed to inflation. Fortunately, the Obama administration can remedy this through executive action. In that paper, they outline a number of justifications for their threshold. These include but are not limited to the following:.

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In , the share of salaried workers under the salary threshold was 65 percent note, a salaried worker is a worker who is paid on a regular schedule and receives a guaranteed minimum amount on each pay date regardless of hours worked. The real value of the threshold has dropped so dramatically that in , just 11 percent of salaried workers were under the threshold. These results are displayed in Table 1. However, the labor market has changed since , with a larger share of the workforce now in higher-level white-collar professional or managerial roles.

This means it is arguably appropriate that the share of workers covered by overtime protections is somewhat lower than in Another way to see the importance of controlling for changes in the labor market is to note, first, that the share of workers falling under a given salary threshold is lower for workers with higher levels of education, and, second, that the workforce today is significantly more educated now than it was in In , 30 percent of salaried workers had a four-year college degree or more, while in , the share with this level of education was 57 percent.

Together these facts mean that some of the overall decline in the share covered by overtime protections since can be explained by the fact that more salaried workers today are in higher-level jobs that require higher levels of education. This underscores the usefulness of accounting for such changes by looking within educational categories instead of at the labor market as a whole. Figure A shows the share of salaried workers under the salary threshold in and by education. These data are also provided in the first two columns of Table 2.

France Divided over DST

In , for every education category, the share under the salary threshold was much lower than it was in Fifty-one percent of salaried workers with a college degree were covered by the salary threshold in , compared with just six percent in For salaried workers with an advanced degree, 36 percent fell under the salary threshold in , compared with just 4 percent in These education breakdowns show that the shift toward higher-level jobs requiring higher levels of education does not come close to fully explaining the post drop in the share of salaried workers falling under the threshold for automatic access to overtime protections.

It should be noted that this is a small group—in , only 3 percent of salaried workers did not have a high school degree. The share of workers with an advanced degree under the salary threshold would be 27 percent, also substantially lower than the share, 36 percent. However, when looking by education category, the shares are similar to the shares, with college-educated and advanced-degreed workers having slightly lower coverage rates and those with less education having the same or slightly higher coverage rates.

Heidi Shierholz joined the Economic Policy Institute as an economist in She has researched and spoken widely on the economy and economic policy as it affects middle- and low-income families, especially in regards to employment, unemployment, labor force participation, compensation, income and wealth inequality, young workers, unemployment insurance, and the minimum wage. She holds a Ph. The Economic Policy Institute gratefully acknowledges the support it received from the Ford Foundation for this project. Bernstein, Jared, and Ross Eisenbrey. Washington, D.

Summer time has been in use again since and follows EU rules. Summer time was used in , and As of December [update] , this is the same as the rest of Ireland. Summer time is known as "ora legale" literally "legal hour", referencing the fact that it is mandated by law in Italy , and it has been adopted and abolished several times: it was observed from to and between and A law was approved in that took effect the following year, and made the application of summer time mandatory in the whole country.

Since , it has been coordinated with the European Union. The Netherlands did not use a standardised time until , when Amsterdam Time was introduced.

Deep Purple - Child In Time - 1970

This time stayed in effect year round until , when the normal clock followed the German DST switches. The use of DST was abandoned directly after the war, and not observed again until , when summer time was observed again, which it currently still is. In Norway, summer time was observed in , —45, and The arrangement was controversial, and in the Norwegian parliament Stortinget voted to discontinue the practice.


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Their neighbour, Sweden, did not use it. However, in summer time was reintroduced together with Sweden and Denmark , and since at least Norway has followed the European Union in this matter. In the years - the last day of summer time was the last Sunday of September. In it was changed to the last Sunday of October, to synchronise with other countries of the EU. In the years , , , , , and from to summer time was not applied.

The time when the clocks changed by more than an hour

For many years, the official time in Madeira was one hour later than that in Lisbon , and the Azores were two hours behind. Today in Madeira, the official time is the same as that of Lisbon and, in the Azores, it is one hour behind Lisbon. The start and end dates for summer time in Portugal follow the pattern in the rest of the EU.. Between and summer time started on the first Sunday in April and ended on the first Sunday in October.

Summer time was abandoned in and reintroduced in Until , with few exceptions, summer time in Romania follows European Union rules. A decree of the Soviet government led to the abandonment of this system five months later: clocks moved one hour back again on 28 December. From , Decree time had the effect of imposing year-round time-zone advances in the Soviet Union. The changeover dates in Russia were the same as for other European countries, but clocks were moved forward or back at local time in all zones.

Note that "day before the last Sunday" is not the same as "the last Saturday" in a month where the last day is a Saturday. On 8 February , Russian President Dmitry Medvedev announced cancellation of biannual clock changes in Russia in favor of a permanent switch to summer time. An hour was added in March for the last time, and clocks did not move back again. At the same time some of Russia's time zones were consolidated.

Summer time in Europe

During his election campaign , Vladimir Putin proposed re-introducing summer time, as some workers had complained about not seeing any daylight during the winter, since the sun had not risen when they went to work. On 26 October Russia permanently returned to "winter" time. After several years, Slovakia established the rule that summer time begins in the last weekend of March during the night from Saturday to Sunday and ends in the last weekend of September. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in , Slovakia continued to use summer time. Since summer time has been prolonged about one month so it lasts until the last weekend in October, in accordance with European Union rules.

Same law was valid until when the end of summer time was changed from first Sunday in October to last Sunday in October. In , the European Union standard was adopted and is still used today. Spain including the Canary Islands has summer time, applying EU rules regarding the start and end times and dates. In Spain observed summer time for the first time, and then introduced and abolished several times.

It was abolished autumn , and then reintroduced and has been used since. In Sweden summer time was originally introduced on 15 May It proved unpopular, and on 30 September in the same year, Sweden returned to year-round standard time. This continued for more than half a century. On 6 April , Sweden again introduced summer time, and since then summer time has been observed every summer in Sweden.

EU seeks to scrap seasonal clock changes in - Reuters

Except for the introduction year , summer time has always started on the last Sunday in March. The last country in Europe to adopt summer time, in , was Switzerland , even though summer time had been rejected by It had formerly been in use in and Summer time was introduced in Turkey in , but suspended from to Since , Turkey follows European Summer Time.

For the year , Turkey switched to European Summer Time at am on Monday 28 March, one day later than the rest of Europe, to avoid disrupting the national university entrance examinations held on 27 March. Once again, for the year , Turkey switched to European Summer Time at am on Monday 31 March, one day later than the rest of Europe, to avoid disrupting the local elections held on 30 March.

In , Turkey delayed the switch from European Summer Time by 2 weeks, to am on Sunday 8 November, two weeks later than the rest of Europe, due to the calling of a snap general election on Sunday, 1 November. In , Turkey scrapped winter time, by switching to New Turkey Time. The switch was on am on Thursday 8 September, in reality stopping switches between summer and winter time. Summer time was introduced in Ukraine in the early s; from till this was Moscow Summer Time ; since Eastern European Summer Time has been used.

However, on 18 October the Parliament canceled these plans and the country returned to Eastern European Time as scheduled. Crimea and regions of eastern Ukraine under the control of pro-Russian separatists observe Further-eastern European Time. Gibraltar uses the same time as Spain. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Further information: Time in Ireland.


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Further information: Time in Russia. Main article: British Summer Time. European Commission. Retrieved 8 March Retrieved 24 March BBC News. Retrieved 30 October Retrieved 24 October Retrieved 28 October The Local. Retrieved 29 October Retrieved 5 November European Parliament. The Guardian.

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