The Complete Histories of Polybius

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Dorimachus Consents To Depart. Aratus Dismisses the Achaean Troops. Bad Strategy of Aratus. The Achaeans Defeated. Aratus Denounced For His Failure.

Polybius: The Histories

Aratus is Denounced and Defends Himself. Lukewarmness of the Allies. The Aetolians and Illyrians Invade Achaia. Factions At Cynaetha. Treason of the Cynaethans. More Aetolian Outrages. Music in Arcadia. Why the Ancient Arcadians Turned to Music. Philip V. In the Peloponnese. Differences of Opinion Among the Lacedaemonians. War Declared With the Aetolians. Opening of the Social War. Disingenuous Policy of the Spartans. The Illyrians and Acarnanians Join.

The Acarnanians Enter the War. Mistaken Policy of the Messenians. Troubles In Sparta. Machatas Addresses the Spartan Public. Restoration of Royalty In Sparta. Universal War. The Black Sea. Flow of the Danube into the Black Sea. Concentration of Salt. The Site of Byzantium. Contrast between Byzantium and Calchedon.

Disadvantages of Byzantium On Land. Byzantium , The Gauls, And Rhodians. The Byzantines Institute a Toll. Achaeus and Prusias I. Complaints of Prusias. The War between Rhodes and Byzantium Begins. Byzantium , Rhodes , and Prusias Treaties. Cavarus, Gallic King, Negotiates Peace.

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War In Crete. Polyrrhen and Lappa Join the Alliance. Raid of Aetolians In the Peloponnese. Philip Starts for Aetolia. The Aetolians Repulsed At Aegira. Philip Advances Southward. Philip Arrives in Epirus. Scopas Destroys Dium. Philip's Aetolian Campaign. Philip Marches Toward Metropolis. Philip Takes Paeanium. Philip Recalled To Macedonia.


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Philip Returns To the Peloponnese. Euripidas Intends to Attack Sicyon. Euripidas Deserts the Eleans. Philip In Arcadia. Philip Captures Psophis. The People of Psophis Surrender. The Wealth of Elis. Peace the Only Unquestioned Blessing. Capture of Thalamae. Popularity of Philip In the Peloponnese. Phillidas and the Aetolian Troops Arrive. Continued Success of Philip. Surrender of Typanae and Phigalia. The People of Lepreum Evict the Garrisons. Chilon's Fruitless Attempts In Sparta. Intrigue of Apelles Against Aratus. Philip Captures the Wall.

Aratus Defends Himself. Aratus is Cleared. Further Intrigues of Apelles. Philip Decides to Fight at Sea. Philip In Cephallenia. Philip Besieges Palus. Philip Invades Aetolia. Aristophanes the Acarnanian Joins Forces with Philip. A Rapid March To Thermus. Plunder and Sacrilege At Thermus. The Present Philip Compared to his Ancestors. Philip's Crime and Blunder. The Return From Thermus. Skirmish at Stratus. Megaleas and Crinon Fined. Arrival at Leucas. Philip Comes to Corinth. Philip Appears At Sparta. Philip Marches Through Laconia.

Philip's Return Opposed. Lycurgus Goes Out to Resist. Position of Sparta and Disposition of Troops. Defeat of Lycurgus Near Sparta. Philip Proceeds to Tegea. Leontius, Megaleas, and Ptolemy Rouse the Guard. Leontius Calls In Apelles. Execution of Leontius. Death of Megaleas. Disturbed State of Achaia. Aratus Elected Strategus. Return to Narrative of the War in Coele-Syria. Weakness of Ptolemy Philopator. Cleomenes Asks for Help from Egypt. Cleomenes In Alexandria. Sosibius Plots Against Cleomenes.

Cleomenes Is Arrested. Death of Cleomenes. Origin of War in Coele-Syria. The Royal Family of Syria. Antiochus Encouraged to Attack Coele-Syria. Revolt of Molon In Media. Geography of Media. Xenoetas Sent Against Molon. Xenoetas Has Early Success. Molon Withdraws Toward Media. The Fall of Xenoetas. Hermeias Overruled. Death of Epigenes. Antiochus Marches Through Mesopotamia. Antiochus Advances Against Molon. Disposition of Troops.

Defeat and Death of Molon. Artabazanes Makes a Treaty with Antiochus. Death of Hermeias. Achaeus Attempts Treason. Description of Seleucia. Capture of Seleucia. Theodotus Proposes to Help Antiochus. Invasion of Coele-Syria. Preparations In Egypt. Training of Soldiers. Reform of the Egyptian Army.

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Antiochus Puts his Troops in Winter Quarters. Claims of Antiochus and Ptolemy. Antiochus Attempts to Complete his Conquest. Antiochus Forces the Pass of Porphyrion. Antiochus Takes More Towns. Continued Success of Antiochus. Achaeus Sends Aid to Pednelissus. Defeat of the Selgians. Panic at Selge. Achaeus At Selge. Death of Logbasis. Expedition of Attalus. Attalus Conciliates the Gauls. Forces Available to Antiochus and Ptolemy. Antiochus Advances To Raphia. Theodotus Attempts to Assassinate Ptolemy.

Dispositions For the Battle of Raphia.


  1. Polybius, Histories, book 1, Introduction;
  2. Poetry and Prose.
  3. The Histories (Polybius) - Wikisource, the free online library.
  4. Each King Exhorts His Army. The Elephants in the Battle. Victory of Ptolemy. The Losses on Each Side. Earthquake At Rhodes. Royal Gifts. Generosity of Other Princes. Lycurgus Returns to Sparta. Lycurgus Cannot Take Messenia. Condition of Megalopolis. Aetolian Raids. More Raids. Agetas Leads the Aetolians Against Acarnania. Philip Secures His Frontier. Importance of Careful Measurement. Capture of Thebes In Phthiotis. Thebes Renamed Philippopolis. Philip Hears of Thrasymene. Philip and the Aetolians Discuss Peace.

    Philip Goes to Naupactus. The Cloud in the West. The Peace is Ratified. Greece At the End of the Social War. Revolt in Egypt. Philip's Preparations. Philip Prepares to Invade Italy. Philip Withdraws to Cephallenia. The Gauls In Asia. Classification of Constitutions. The Rotation of Polities. The Origin of Constitutions. Origin of Morality and Rule. How Kingship Turns into Tyranny. Degeneration of Constitutions. How Democracy Arises and Degenerates.

    The Roman Constitution. The Consuls. The Senate. The People. Division of Political Power At Rome. The Senate Controlled by the People. Powers of the Senate. Interdependency Brings Strength. On the Roman Army. Allocation of Men to the Legions. Fourfold Division of the Legionaries. Arms of the Youngest Roman Soldiers. Arms of the Other Soldiers. Officers of Infantry and Cavalry. Officers and Armour of the Cavalry.

    Polybius' The Histories (12 vols.)

    The Roman Camp. How the Camp is Constructed. Division by Roads and Squares. Placement of Triarii, Principes , and Hastati. Placement of the Allies. The Camp Market-Place. Guard Duty and Other Assignments. Daily Orders and Watchwords. Night Watches. The Tribunes' Court. Military Punishments and Rewards. Military Decorations. The Army On the March. Making Camp. Roman Camps Designed for Facility and Familiarity. The Roman Republic Compared with Others. The Athenian Constitution. The Cretan Constitution Compared to the Spartan. Greed Among the Cretans. What Makes a Constitution Good. Institutions of Lycurgus.

    The Defect in the Spartan Constitution. Sparta Compared with Rome. Carthage Compared with Rome. The Causes of Roman Superiority. Roman Funeral Rites. Patriotism and Purity At Rome. Religion Keeps the Roman Commonwealth Together. Conclusion: Dangers Ahead for Rome. Even Hannibal Acknowledges the Spirit of the Romans. Hieronymus of Syracuse. The Treaty with Carthage. Hieronymus Decides For War. Description of Leontini. Fall of Heronymus.

    Character of Hiero II. Messene and Philip V. Philip Dissuaded from Taking Messene. Philip's Loss of Popularity. Philip Begins to Become a Tyrant. Aratus a Moderating Influence on Philip. The War of Antiochus with Achaeus. Antiochus Takes Sardis. The Sack of Sardis. Sardis Destroyed. Immense Exertions of Rome. Syracuse 's Defenses.

    Siege of Syracuse. Other Inventions of Archimedes. The Assault By Land Repulsed. Philip Devastates Messene. Criticism Of Theopompus. Philip, Alexander, And the Diadochi. Flawed Structure of Theopompus's History. Aratus Poisoned. Philip Takes Lissus in Illyria , B.

    In Illyria. Bolis the Cretan Agrees to Rescue Achaeus. Bolis Turns Traitor. Antiochus Approves the Plan. The Final Arrangements are Made. Achaeus Takes Precautions. Capture of Achaeus. Antiochus In Armenia. The Gallic King, Cauarus. Antiochus the Great at Armosata. The Hannibalian War — Tarentum. A Bargain Made with Hannibal. Tarentum Betrayed To Hannibal. Gaius Livius Has a Party. Hannibal Enters Tarentum. Philemenus and his Retinue Get In Too.

    Massacre of Romans In Tarentum. The Tarentines Themselves Spared. Hannibal Secures Tarentum. Additional Fortifications. The Tarantines Blockade the Romans. Fall of Syracuse , B. Beasts of Burden Used as a Defensive Wall. Why Focus on Actions. The Hannibalian War. The Siege of Capua. Hannibal Advances Upon Rome. Rome Saved by Luck.

    Hannibal In Sight of Rome. Epaminondas and Hannibal Compared. When Audacity is the Truest Safety. On the Art of Commanding Armies. Scientific Strategy. Generals Also Need to Know Science. Mode of Calculating Time. Example: Ulysses. Failures Arising From Ignorance. Cleomenes Tries to Take Megalopolis. Example: Why Nicias Failed at Syracuse. Need of Some Knowledge of Mathematics. The Computation of the Size of Cities. Estimate of Hannibal.

    Examples of Actions Contrary to Principles. Hannibal's Greed. Greece : Philip Reduces Thessaly. Speech of Chlaeneas. Impiety of Philip. Conclusion of the Speech. Lyciscus Replies To Chlaeneas. Defence of Macedonian Policy. Contrast Between Alexander and the Aetolians. Services of Macedonians To Greece. Contrast of the Aetolian Policy. Philip in Thessaly. Investment of Echinus by Philip. Asia and Egypt. Nature of the Euphrates River. Embassy from Rome to Ptolemy. His Character. Scipio's First Brilliant Success. His Election To the Aedileship. Publius and Lucius Become Aediles.

    Speech of Publius Scipio to the Soldiers. He Determines To Attack Carthagena. Why New Carthage is a Desirable Target. Laelius and Scipio Proceed to New Carthage. Topography of Carthagena. Scipio Briefs His Troops. The Attack On Carthagena Begun. Double Assault By The Romans. Scipio Creates a Distraction. Carthagena Captured and Looted.

    How the Romans Distribute Booty. Scipio's Treatment of the Prisoners. Scipio's Treatment of Women. The Money. Scipio's Training Regimen. Philopoemen of Megalopolis. His Birth and Education. Philopoemen's Reforms. How to Drill a Large Company. Philip's Increasing Deterioration. Medea and the Palace at Ecbatana. Antiochus the Great In Media. Antiochus Moves into Hyrcania. Fighting On Mount Labus. Antiochus Reaches Tambrax.


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    5. Fall of M. Claudius Marcellus. Hannibal's Greatness. The Submission of the Edetani to Scipio. General Defection to the Romans. Difficulty of Making Good Use of a Victory. Hasdrubal Comes to a Decision. Hasdrubal and Scipio Prepare to Fight. Scipio Attacks Hasdrubal. Scipio Refuses the Title "King". Affairs in Greece : Philip V. Called In Against the Aetolians. Reinforcements Sent to Various Cities. Fire signals. Methods of Signalling. An Improved Method. Improvements In Signalling. Importance of Practice. Antiochus Crosses the Arius.

      Antiochus Engages the Bactrians. Hasdrubal's Conduct in His Last Battle. The Romans Celebrate a Victory. Dangers of the Treaty With Rome. Philip In Aetolia Again. Philip Vandalizes Thermus. Faults of the Achaean Officers. Philopoemen in the Peloponnese , B. Philopoemen and Machanidas. Arrangement of Forces at Mantinea. Battle of Mantinea. Efficiency of Mercenaries. Machanidas Changes his Plan. Defeat of the Lacedaemonians. Philopoemen Seizes an Opportunity. Army of Machanidas Put to Flight.

      Fall of Machanidas. The Hannibalian War Continued. Scipio in Spain , After the Battle of the Metaurus. Futile Attack by Mago. Defeat of Hasdrubal Son of Gesco. Scipio Outflanks the Enemy. Carthaginians Driven From Spain. Scipio Suppresses A Mutiny in Spain. Scipio's Plan to Punish the Rebels. Suppression of the Mutiny. Scipio Harangues the Mutinous Troops. Scipio's Speech Continued. Execution of the Ringleaders. Scipio Proposes to Fight Andobales. Scipio Defeats Andobales. Scipio's Return To Rome. The Lotus. Timaeus Wrong about Libya.

      The Errors of Timaeus. Aristotle's Account of Locri is Correct. The Epizephyrian Locrians. Timaeus and the Character of a Historian. Timaeus Criticises Aristotle. Timaeus's Statement of Method. The Investigations of Timaeus. Timaeus's Use of Chronological Records. Timaeus On Divination.

      Timaeus On Demochares and Agathocles. No Place in History for Abusive Language. Timaeus Blinded by Personal Malignity. The Laws of Zaleucus. A Criticism on Ephorus and Callisthenes. The Battle of Issus. Callisthenes Vague on Alexander's Movements. Inaccuracies about Tactics. Worst Misstatement of Callisthenes. Further Absurdities. Timaeus Exalts Timoleon To Excess. General Remarks on Timaeus as an Historian. Sophistical Commonplaces. An Historian Needs Practical Experience. Mere Inquiry Is Insufficient. Scopas Goes to Egypt.

      Philip's Treacherous Conduct, B. Philip Intrigues Against Rhodes. Distrust between Philip and the Rhodians. Nabis, Tyrant of Sparta, B. Nabis's Wife. Nabis Finds a Pretext for War. Antiochus in Arabia, B. Scipio Prepares to Attack Utica by Sea. Syphax and Hasdrubal Are Deluded. The Romans Burn the Enemy Camp. Dreadful Scene In the Burning Camps. Anda Surrenders to Rome. Carthaginians Reinforced and Resolute. Scipio Determines to Attack. Scipio's Victory On the Great Plains. Scipio Fears a Carthaginian Attack on the Fleet. Women at Alexandria. Ptolemy Philopator, B.

      Treacherous Attempt on the Lives of the Roman Envoys. Last Year of the Second Punic War. Scipio Sends the Envoys Home. Both Sides Prepare For Battle. Meeting of Hannibal and Scipio. Conclusion of Hannibal's Speech. Scipio's reply. Dispositions For the Battle of Zama. Scipio's Speech to his Men. Hannibal's Preparations and Speech. The Battle of Zama Begins. Cowardice of the Carthaginians.

      Victory of Scipio and Flight of Hannibal. Hannibal Did All He Could. Hannibal's Tactics Sound. Scipio Unmoved by Carthaginian Laments. Terms Made After the Battle of Zama. League Against Ptolemy Epiphanes. Molpagoras of Cius. Philip Rouses the Enmity of the Greeks. Philip at Thasos. Ptolemy Epiphanes Succeeds To the Crown. Another Murder Committed by Agathocles. The Death of Agathocles and his Family.

      Growing Hatred of Agathocles. Moeragenes Escapes. A Mob Assembles. The King Surrendered To the Soldiers. The King Conducted to the Stadium. The Massacre of Agathocles and Family. Incidents of the Sea-Fight. The Sea-Battle Undecided. Attalus Barely Escapes Capture. Attalus Abandons his Ship but Escapes. Losses in the Battle. Death of Theophiliscus.

      Philip's Operations in Caria, B. Description of Iassus. Affairs in Greece. Zeno's Account of the Attack on Messene. Some of Zeno's Mistakes Due to Ignorance. Zeno's Account of the Battle of Panium. Zeno's Description Implausible. Zeno Acknowledges His Error. Egypt — Character of Tlepolemus. Intrigues At Alexandria. The War in Coele-Syria. Scipio's Triumph. War Between Rome and Philip V. King Attalus At Athens. Athens Votes for War Against Philip. Activity and Energy of Philip.

      The Hellespont Compared with Gibraltar. The Siege of Abydos. Courage of the Abydenians. The Fall of Abydos. Rhodes Holds to its Friendship With Rome. A Muster of Achaeans Against Nabis. A Raid Upon Laconia. Congress of Nicaea. Speech of Alexander Isius. Philip's Response. Philip Retorts On His Accusers. Philip's Answer to the Rhodians and Attalus. The mixed constitution was touted as the strongest constitution as it combined the three integral types of government : monarchy , aristocracy and democracy. Polybius makes further distinction in the forms of government by including the nefarious counterparts to the ones mentioned above; tyranny , oligarchy , and ochlocracy.

      These governments, according to Polybius, cycle in a process called anacyclosis or kyklos , which begins with monarchy and ends with ochlocracy. The Romans avoided this problem through the structure of their Republic mixed government. The first English translation, made by Christopher Watson , was published in London in [1] as The hystories of the most famous and worthy cronographer Polybius. Walbank wrote a comprehensive commentary on the Histories in three volumes, which was published in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

      This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Walbank, Frank W.

      The Complete Histories of Polybius by Polybius, W R Paton | Waterstones

      The Rise of the Roman Empire. Penguin Classics. The Histories. Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from November All articles needing additional references Articles containing Ancient Greek-language text.

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